Istanbul Security Conference 2016 TASAM Declaration (DRAFT)
The 2nd Istanbul Security Conference which held for the first time in 2015, again took place on 02-04 November 2016, at the Radisson Blu Hotel Sisli with the main theme of “Change in State Nature: Borders of Security“. The Istanbul Security Conference 2016, which is advancing towards global and regional branding with the attendance of approximately 400 people, has presented broad speakers and protocols from different regions. Minister of National Security of Uganda, Minister of Economy of Afghanistan, the Deputy Minister of Defense of Pakistan and the Chief of General Staff of Poland, This year with The Commander in Chief of the General Staff Strategic Research Center of Qatar as "Honorary Guest Country", representing the Qatar State in the conference, participated as a foreign protocol. All the authorities associated with Turkey were represented in the Conference and all sessions were followed up institutionally.
On the occasion, many institutions were given the right to the studies they have designed as a whole within the framework of the issues identified by institutions with different visions could also be found at the Conference. In addition, the "Istanbul Security Conference" brand was hosted by TASAM and the National Defense and Security Institute, it was considered as a good opportunity to catalyze the lavish ideas in Turkey by giving a voice to all institutions.
In discussions held within the framework of the new world system in 19 different panels and the new security concept brought to the system; Discussions have been held on a very wide scale from the classical security perception to the most recent discussions. The fact that the number of interdisciplinary studies is high also emphasizes the extent of the new field of discussion of the "security" phenomenon.
As a result of the conference, the following conclusions and proposals were made and it was decided to be presented to the attention of all related authorities and public.
1. Challenges that define global security and the new nature of the state, evolving over "micro-nationalism", "integration" and "unpredictability", “Resource and Sharing Crisis”, "Energy, Water and Food Insecurity", "Transition to the 4th Dimension in Every Field of Life", "Liquidation of Human Resources in the Labor force", "Sustainability of Production and Consumption - Growth Form", “Elimination Of The Middle Class Through China Factor”, "The Change in State Nature and the Transition of Hard Power to Soft Power in the Expectation Management," the basic thesis is emphasized.
2. The security environment had been through a process of change after the Cold War. Some similar security policies that nation-states have applied since the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the millennium, in particular the mandatory military service, are undergoing a shift paradigm. Adapting to these developments is essential for an effective security policy and military structure. It is necessary to conduct analyzes at the national level for the use of "private military companies" (APAs) in security policy implementations. In summary, within the analyzes, the outcome-oriented approach is the frontend; Process-oriented approach will be more appropriate to the public staff in the front plan.
3. It is obvious that NATO is not a homogeneous organization in terms of many aspects such as security perceptions, power elements and perceived threats, which are linked to the 28 member states and 41 partner states through partnership policy. However, in this context, that doesn’t mean that NATO does not sensible in terms of member states nor can it be used as a political tool. Different interests between countries do not allow the costly and the operations that high risk of losing life to be realized. In such an international conjuncture, in NATO, as in the Aegean, will prefer operations that will provide human security, low cost, which allows for its presence beyond the Atlantic, and operations that are relatively less risky of human loss and can positively affect the international public. The Aegean operation is an example. However, the continuity of this choice and, more importantly, the continuation of NATO's existence as a defense organization depends on the ability of Alliance members to provide clear & concise answers to NATO's goals and objectives.
4. Following the breakdown of the bipolar ideological structure after the Cold War, "The concept and strategy of national security created by ideological approaches" has been abandoned and reinterpreted by many international institutions. Security compiled under five sectors according to the Copenhagen Criteria; "Military", "economic", "social", "political", "environmental" security. Thus, the new security approach, defined as to be appropriate for the interests of the global economic system, has expanded in scope and content, and "national security" has become an area of international concern. However, as globalization has increased mutual interaction between states, security areas have become more fragile. It is therefore necessary that the national security issue be dealt with in accordance with new national security policies.
5. Today, the hegemonic power of the United States, which moves with the desire to be a global power, is in fact based on the size of its military power. Therefore, this power helps to implement a policy at the World-scale. USA; "Either do what I say, or I will coerce it". The US, which is trying to establish global dominance of capitalism and wants to bring the world into a single market by affecting world and financial markets, is trying to close the global legitimacy openness with superior military technology.
6. Nowadays the fact that countries with energy sources and that are in need of energy, are located in geographically different regions of the world, require a significant transfer of the energy source. In this context, national security issues can also arise for those who are in the "energy source" and "transit country" for energy resources, and countries need deployment and related appropriate measures.
7. Comparative political science and geopolitical, geostrategic and intelligence analysts; "Symmetrical threat and covered war", it is confirmed that the weapon of the capitalist western world has arrived. The asymmetric and implicit attack mechanism surroundings and functioning both politically, legally and economically all over the world. When we compare the indecent war techniques of our era with the traditional war techniques, it can be said that they are much more destructive. On the contrary, in traditional battles, certain warrior finally ends the war, but in the asymmetric dirty battle, the war does not end, the parties in the endless battle are not clearly visible due to the "proxy" method, the society is constantly in crisis and even in chaos, , It seems that the perception of the country that apparently fights with the enemy because of the enemy's side is obviously gleaned into the minds, that a heavy identity politics has turned into the main instrument of war, millions of people are being persecuted, civilians were placed as a target.
8. The reflexes of protecting the borders, which is a sacred phenomenon for both the sovereign states, is a vicious cycle in the international system, both because of the fact that Turkey, which is at the center of the Middle East geography, is negatively affected by the refugees affected by the Syrian crisis and also because the financial and militant resources of the PKK And the problems that can not be solved will grow even more and will exacerbate possible conflicts in and around Turkey. To prevent Turkey from facing such negative outcome, Turkey needs to take necessary measures against violations of human rights related to the strengthening of its borders, the arbitration and the refugee crisis
9. National borders continue to represent the nation-states and the people subject to it even in the era of globalization. In the globalization era in which we have to introduce new functions to the borders, borders with the nation-state are also being restructured in accordance with the threats and opportunities of the new era and the nation-state still plays a central role. Therefore, the future of the boundaries existing in the international system; It seems to be closely related to the world system, the nature and functions of the state, the construction of the state, the construction of nationalism and nation, identity and change, the principle of self-determination, democracy and democratization. In other words, the nature of the borders and the features of the nation-states; Local, regional, international and global dynamics and issues. But in this formation, the fundamental or determinative actor in the struggle between "geopolitics of globalization" and "state geopolitics" will continue to be "nation-state".
10. It is valued that the critical security philosophy is reflected in governance, that is, in the state and its legal system, and generally in the international system. In order to be seen as a real purpose, safety must be addressed with the goal of sustainability. This requires first reinterpreting the relationship between man and nature, and then placing it in the center, where nature must be in the security analysis. It is also thought to be important at the point of democratization of the administration. This effort can be seen as a step toward the transition from anthropocentric advanced industrial security society to an ecologically sustainable democratic society. The good governance, which has been discussed since ancient Greece, corresponds to the reality of the 21st century; Sustainable democratic society.
11. To emphasize the impulsive / interventionist security model in connection with human security, humanitarian intervention and protection (R2P) actions can undoubtedly create contradictions with the norm of nation-state domination; It can also cause situations that conflict with the efforts of keeping the nation together as a monolith by considering the creation of nations and human rights. Human security issue; Political economy, state sovereignty, or in-country political society, democracy and development, model of social state, public interest in the face of freedoms, universal and local conflict of values, It can create problems that are closely related to the areas of important debates that have never been on the agenda.
12. Along with the globalization process, there is an increasing "integration" in the world with the borders on the one hand, and on the other hand, there are also reactions to the globalization forces to homogenize and the localization trends are strengthened. With the rapid spread of Western democracy and neoliberal policies, especially after the Cold War, political borders under the control of nation-states have become more permeable and insignificant, and in this process the states have faced more and more with non-military security threats that could come from outside their borders.
13. The negative reflections of the Syrian conflict in Turkey have had important effects not only in terms of Turkish foreign policy but also in terms of internal politics. Turkey, which is experiencing changes in the perception of border security in terms of foreign policy, has drifted into a rolling relationship with its allies and has to act occasionally proactive and passive from time to time, has been increasing polarization in its domestic politics, tactical change of the PKK that has struggled for many years, Such as the financial and social integration of refugees, and in particular over the past three years, the agenda has been filled with seeking answers and solutions to these internal and external politics challenges.
14. Different elements of US opponents and Military operations are difficult with the weapon supplies to them; after the difficulties and the losses, some of the allies have come up with infantry support. This has also increased the cost for the US. As what’s occurred in 2003, they intervene yet saw a great cost. At the end of the entire process, it may be called "a different action scale has been reversed". To support the allied civilian / non-state organization (from cyber to missile attack, from no fly zone to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) to bring the opponent - even the proxy - to create a very costly fight; This way, the concept of protecting the political interest in the region continued.
15. Two fundamental driving forces play a dominant role in the conceptualization and security concept changes. Firstly, liberalism, the unbreakable competition, and secondly is the resistance in interest sharing and reduced to the zero-sum game rule. In order to capture and control the world's energy resources areas, transportation lines and strategic raw material resources, to expand and deepen its ambitious security; Involvement of non-state civil actors in the field of security do not take International law and fundamental human rights and freedoms also lead to new threat, challenges, sensitivities and risk in their perception.
16. Prompt application of measures without changing the threat’s shape or emerging new threats will be a key factor in the success. The extent of the successful measures will determine governments and institutions that are adapting to the new security environment. Because the new security environment contains asymmetric threats that rapidly change shape. From this perspective; the measures taken should be made with a proactive mindset, not reactive, and be prepared without threats. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct intellectual and foresight studies on security, warfare, strategy and tactics
17. Supporting energy production from renewable sources, addressed by the UN in the framework of sustainable development, is not directly related to the control of energy supply security but also to the aim of leaving a better future for future generations and at the same time not to neglect economic development. Therefore, future projection within the next years should be taken into consideration both for the transformation of the nuclear energy and for the development of renewable energy. Additionally; it should be noted that energy production should not be the only daily interests of the states but also the long-term and future generations, considering that the negative consequences of climate change will be encountered more each day.
18. States have also seen in the cross-border policy the way to overcome the threats that could result in the establishment of the security paradigms on imperialism. In the modern era, "Classical sense of imperialism" despite being no longer a valid foreign policy instrument, the effects remains existed. In particular, the tendency to deal with the past, which has been explained by the concept of social memory which has developed due to the victimization and has become one of the important sources of motivation that global terrorist organizations have used in militant renaissance in combination with ethnic nationalism.
19. One of the indispensable weapons of hybrid warfare, special work should be done for "social media" from threat elements of cyber security. Special teams should be formed to keep the speed of social media information propagation, clear from negative initiatives due to the accessibility and ability to direct social movements.
04 November 2016, Istanbul